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Simulations, Data Analysis and Algorithms

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Figure 3 | Computational Astrophysics and Cosmology

Figure 3

From: On the reliability of N-body simulations

Figure 3

Exponential divergence in a 16-body cluster. In the left panel we illustrate the exponential divergence between Brutus simulations with increasing precision. In the right panel we show the final relative energy conservation (black bullets, solid line) and the final normalized phase space distance between two subsequent simulations (red triangles, dashed line) versus the Bulirsch-Stoer tolerance parameter ϵ. The solution starts to converge at a level of final relative energy conservation of 10−34.

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